The Co-op will stop selling energy drinks to under-16s from Thursday, March 1.
The supermarket group says there are health risks associated with high levels of caffeine.
Bosses have decided on a voluntary ban, which will apply to 39 products containing more than 150mg of caffeine per litre.
Once the age restriction is introduced customers will need to provide appropriate ID to prove they are old enough to purchase.
Commercial director Michael Fletcher said: “There is growing concern about the consumption of energy drinks among young people and we recognise that we must act.
“It’s a balance between offering choice whilst doing the right thing and we have listened to parents and teachers who want to limit young people’s access to high caffeine drinks.”
The age restriction on sales will be applied in 2,700 Co-op Group stores and over 1,000 independent Co-op Society stores.
The move follows growing concern over possible health risks from the high caffeine and sugar content of energy drinks.
A 2014 report from the World Health Organization concluded: “As energy drink sales are rarely regulated by age and there is a proven negative effect of caffeine on children, there is the potential for a significant public health problem in future.”
Celebrity chef Jamie Oliver spoke out in January urging sales to under 16s to be banned.
The father-of-five said energy drinks were turning kids into “addicts.”
Other stores including Tesco, Sainsbury’s, Lidl, Morrisons, Aldi and Waitrose have also announced bans.