Buoyed by the record crowd of 23, 213, David Wagner's side started well before the visitors were awarded a contentious penalty in the 9th minute.
Matt Ritchie, believed to have been fouled by Nahki Wells in the box, converted from 12 yards out to give the Magpies an early lead.
Daryl Murphy then doubled their advantage on 33 minutes and although Aaron Mooy gave Town a glimmer of hope with a spot-kick 18 minutes from time, Dwight Gayle sealed the victory in stoppage time.
“The game changed when we went 2-0 down so early on,” Town's head coach said. “It allowed them to sit back deeper and soak up the pressure.
"I'm not sure about the first penalty. I think there was a handball before it and for the second goal Danny Ward touched the ball and had it under control before being dispossessed.
"He then got a knock and we had to take him off at half-time.
“We tried to break them down and had good opportunities but unfortunately it wasn't enough – too many situations went against us.
"We are disappointed with the result but I have no complaints with the players' performance and I am very proud.
"We showed great fighting attitude and that's all I can ask. They are a top team which is the reason they are top of the league and will get promoted."
The result leaves Huddersfield Town 11 points behind league leaders Newcastle and six behind second-placed Brighton & Hove Albion with a chance to bounce back quickly at home to Aston Villa on Tuesday evening.
"We can leave this result behind us very quickly," Wagner added. "There are some very smart and intelligent players in the dressing room and they know we were very unlucky.
"We performed and played very well against the best team in the division but the players are already looking toward the game on Tuesday night.”